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Silicon Crystal

Silicon crystal is used as an optical window primarily in the 3 to 5 micron band and as a substrate for production of optical filters. Large blocks of Silicon with polished faces are also employed as neutron targets in Physics experiments.

Silicon Crystal Transmission Curve

Property of Silicon Crystal

Transmission Range : 1.2 to 15 µm
Refractive Index : 3.4223 @ 5 µm
Reflection Loss : 46.2% at 5 µm (2 surfaces)
Absorption Coefficient : 0.01 /cm at 3 µm
Reststrahlen Peak : n/a
dn/dT : 160 x 10E-6 /°C
dn/dµ = 0 : 10.4 µm
Density : 2.33 g/cm³
Melting Point : 1420 °C
Thermal Conductivity : 163.3 W /m /K at 273 K
Thermal Expansion : 2.6 x 10E-6 / at 20°C
Hardness : Knoop 1150
Specific Heat Capacity : 703 J /Kg /K
Dielectric Constant : 13 at 10 GHz
Youngs Modulus (E) : 131 GPa
Shear Modulus (G) : 79.9 GPa
Bulk Modulus (K) : 102 GPa
Elastic Coefficients : C11=167; C12=65; C44=80
Apparent Elastic Limit : 124.1MPa (18000 psi)
Poisson Ratio : 0.266
Solubility : Insoluble in Water
Molecular Weight : 28.09
Class/Structure : Cubic diamond, Fd3m

With one of the lowest densities of the common IR materials, Silicon crystal is ideal for systems with weight constraints. Silicon crystal is harder than Germanium crystal and not as brittle. Silicon crystal is the lowest material cost option of all the IR materials. Silicon is diamond turnable.

Typical application: Thermal imaging, FLIR.

Surface Finish: Typical 40-20 or 60-40 scratch-dig. Diamond Turned 120 Angstroms rms or better.
Surface Flatness: Range from 1/2 wave to 2 waves @633nm depending on the system performance requirements.

Product Notes:
Silicon is grown by Czochralski pulling techniques (CZ) and contains some oxygen which causes an absorption band at 9 microns. To avoid this, Silicon can be prepared by a Float-Zone (FZ) process. Optical Silicon is generally lightly doped ( 5 to 40 ohm cm) for best transmission above 10 microns. Silicon has a further pass band 30 to 100 microns which is effective only in very high resistivity uncompensated material. Doping is usually Boron (p-type) and Phosphorus (n-type)

Silicon Crystal Order Information

OptoCity offer Silicon manufactured products: Silicon Lenses, Aspheric Lenses, Binary(Diffractive) Lenses, Windows, Optical Beamsplitters, Optical Filters, Wedges.


1. Silicon Window

SIW210-1, Ø10 x 1 mm Silicon Window


SIW212-2, Ø12.7 x 2 mm Silicon Window


SIW225-3, Ø25.4 x 2 mm Silicon Window


SIW250-4, Ø50.8 x 4 mm Silicon Window


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2. Silicon Lens

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Silicon Crystal Inquiry

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