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More Laser Crystal


Physical Properties

Chemical formula: YAlO3 : Nd3+
Activator concentration atom % :0.8~1.5
Crystal structure: orthorhombic
Lattice cell parameters: a = 5.18Å, b = 5.31Å, c = 7.36Å
Density. g/cm³: 5.38
Melting point: 1850 °C
Mohs’ hardness: 8.5
Index of refraction: 1.94
Optical transparence region, µm: 0.22¸6. 5
Optical transition: 4F3/2 →4I11/2
Emission wavelength: 1.079 µm
Linear coefficient of thermal expansion, K-1: (0.4–1.1)·10-5
Thermal conductivity, W/cm.K: 0.11
Growth direction of crystals: [001]


Physical Properties

Chemical formula :YAlO3 : Er3+
Activator concentration, atom %: 0.1~100
Crystal structure: orthorhombic
Lattice cell parameters, Å : a = 5.18, b = 5.31, c = 7.36
Density. g/cm³: 5.38
Melting point: 1850 °C
Mohs’ hardness: 8.5
Index of refraction: 1.94
Optical transparence region, µm: 0.22~6.5
Emission wavelength, nm: 275
Linear coefficient of thermal expansion, K-1: (0.4–1.1)·10-5
Thermal conductivity, W/cm.K: 0.11
Growth direction of crystals: [001]
Maximal dimensions of crystals, mm: 70 x 70 x 15


YAG doped with neodymium and chromium (Nd:Cr:YAG or Nd/Cr:YAG) has absorption characteristics which are superior to Nd:YAG. This is because energy is absorbed by the broad absorption bands of the Cr3+ dopant and then transferred to Nd3+ by dipole-dipole interactions. This material has been suggested for use in solar-pumped lasers, which could form part of a solar power satellite system.


Erbium-doped YAG (Er:YAG) is an active laser medium lasing at 2940 nm. Its absorption bands suitable for pumping are wide and located between 600 and 800 nm, allowing for efficient flashlamp pumping. The dopant concentration used is high: about 50% of the yttrium atoms are replaced. The Er:YAG laser wavelength couples well into water and body fluids, making this laser especially useful for medicine and dentistry uses; it is used for treatment of tooth enamel and in cosmetic surgery. Er:YAG is used for noninvasive monitoring of blood sugar. The mechanical properties of Er:YAG are essentially the same as Nd:YAG. Er:YAG operates at wavelengths where the threshold for eye damage is relatively high (since the light is absorbed before striking the retina), works well at room temperature, and has high slope efficiency. Er:YAG is pale green.

Er:YAG laser crystals in sizes from 3 mm to 10 mm diameter, with lengths up to 150 mm long is available from OptoCity. Call upon our depth of experience in research, crystal growth and laser rod fabrication, We will work with you to produce laser crystals that meet the exact specifications for superior performance of your 2.94 micron ER:YAG laser system.


Neodymium-cerium double-doped YAG (Nd:Ce:YAG, or Nd,Ce:YAG) is an active laser medium material very similar to Nd:YAG. The added cerium atoms strongly absorb in the ultraviolet region, and transfer their energy to the neodymium atoms, increasing the pumping efficiency; the result is lower thermal distortion and higher power output than Nd:YAG at the same pumping level. The lasing wavelength, 1064 nm, is the same as for Nd:YAG. The material has a good resistance to damage caused by UV from the pump source, and low lasing threshold. Usually 1.1-1.4 % of Y atoms are replaced with Nd, and 0.05-0.1% with Ce.


The Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser is perhaps the most versatile surgical laser available to today's laser surgeon. The unique ability of the Ho:YAG to vaporize, ablate and coagulate soft tissues and extremely hard materials, such as calculi, have made it the laser of choice for orthopedic, urologic, ENT, gynecologic, gastroenterologic and general surgeons worldwide.

A relatively low depth of thermal penetration, excellent hemostasis, delivery systems that allow access to even the tightest spaces, and a wide variety of tissue effects are just a few of the many benefits the Ho:YAG laser can bring to your patients and your practice.

Holmium:YAG laser energy, at 2100 nm (2.1 microns), is rapidly absorbed by the water in tissue and has an ultimate depth of penetration of 0.4 mm or less. Holmium laser energy can ablate hard materials such as calcified urinary tract calculi while also being able to treat the delicate structures encountered in spinal, gynecological and ENT surgery.


Holmium-chromium-thulium triple-doped YAG (Ho:Cr:Tm:YAG, or Ho,Cr,Tm:YAG) is an active laser medium material with high efficiency. It lases at 2097 nm and can be pumped by a flashlamp or a laser diode. It is widely used in military, medicine, and meteorology. Q-switched Ho:YAG lasers are used e.g. to pump mid-infrared OPOs. It works well at room temperature, has high slope efficiency, and operates at a wavelength where the threshold for eye damage is relatively high. When pumped by a diode, the 781 nm band is used. Other major pump bands are located between 400 and 800 nm. The dopant levels used are 0.35 atom.% Ho, 5.8 atom.% Tm, and 1.5 at.% Cr. The rods have green color, imparted by chromium(III).

Lengths from 3 mm - 152.4 mm and Rod Diameters 2 mm - 12.7 mm is available from OptoCity.


Thulium-doped YAG (Tm:YAG) is an active laser medium that operates between 1930 and 2040 nm. It is suitable for diode pumping. A dual-mode Tm:YAG laser emits two frequencies separated by 1 GHz.


Dysprosium-doped YAG (Dy:YAG) is a temperature-sensitive phosphor used in temperature measurements. The phosphor is excited by a laser pulse and its temperature-dependent fluorescence is observed. Dy:YAG is sensitive in ranges of 300-1700 K. The phosphor can be applied directly to the measured surface, or to an end of an optical fiber.


Samarium-doped YAG (Sm:YAG) is a temperature-sensitive phosphor similar to Dy:YAG.


Terbium-doped YAG (Tb:YAG) is a phosphor used in cathode ray tubes. It emits at yellow-green color, at 544 nm.


Cerium(III)-doped YAG (Ce:YAG or YAG:Ce) is a phosphor, or a scintillator when in pure single-crystal form, with wide range of uses. It emits yellow light when subjected to blue or ultraviolet light, or to x-ray light. It is used in white light-emitting diodes, as a coating on a high-brightness blue InGaN diode, converting part of the blue light into yellow, which then appears as white. Such an arrangement gives less than ideal color rendering. The output brightness decreases with increasing temperature, further altering device color output.

Ce:YAG is also used in some mercury-vapor lamps as one of the phosphors, often together with Eu:Y(P,V)O4 (yttrium phosphate-vanadate). It is also used as a phosphor in cathode ray tubes, where it emits green (530 nm) to yellow-green (550 nm) light. When excited by electrons, it has virtually no afterglow (70 ns decay time). It is suitable for use in photomultipliers.

Ce:YAG is used in PET scanners, high-energy gamma radiation and charged particle detectors, and high-resolution imaging screens for gamma, x-rays, beta radiation and ultraviolet radiation.

Ce:YAG can be further doped with gadolinium.


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